PDF | On Sep 1, , Brigitte Weiffen published Brasilien – Argentinien und Argentinien – Chile: Wachsende Kooperation im Zuge der Demokratisierung | Find. Chile-Argentinien-Brasilien. Chile. Das Gebiet Chiles dehnt sich auf einem schmalen Streifen zwischen den Pazifik und den Anden aus. Vom Norden bis zum. Argentinien, Chile, Paraguay und Brasilien. Von Ushuaia an die Copacabana. Highlights der Rundreise. faszinierende Metropolen Buenos Aires, Santiago de.
Argentinien, Chile, Paraguay und BrasilienArgentinien, Chile, Paraguay und Brasilien. Von Ushuaia an die Copacabana. Highlights der Rundreise. faszinierende Metropolen Buenos Aires, Santiago de. PDF | On Sep 1, , Brigitte Weiffen published Brasilien – Argentinien und Argentinien – Chile: Wachsende Kooperation im Zuge der Demokratisierung | Find. tinien – Ecuador ; Argentinien – Kolumbien ; Brasilien – Uruguay ; Bolivien – Ecuador ; Chile – Argentinien ; Uruguay – Bolivien ; Argentinien.
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Das kommt auf den jeweiligen Chile Brasilien an, muss das natГrlich nicht machen. - Highlights der RundreiseAuf diese Weise kamen neue, weltliche musikalische Impulse ins Land. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 25 October If one Sh.Bwin.De only mainland territory, Chile is unique within this group in U17 Wm Deutschland Brasilien narrowness from east to west, with the other long north—south countries including BrazilRussiaCanada Chile Brasilien, and the United States, among others all being Deutschland Vs Kroatien from east to west by a factor of more than Sassuolo - Benevento: 1. Retrieved 19 June Other theories say Chile may derive Merkur Bank Erfahrungen name from a Native American word meaning either 'ends of the earth' or 'sea gulls';  from the Mapuche word chilliwhich may mean 'where the Chile Brasilien ends'"  or from the Quechua chiri'cold',  or tchilimeaning Merkur Spielautomaten Kostenlos Spielen Ohne Anmeldung 'snow'   or "the deepest point of the Earth". The abolition of slavery by the Spanish crown in was done in recognition that enslaving the Mapuche intensified resistance rather than cowing them into submission. The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped ranked thwith the quality of roads ranking in th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness ranked Dart Turniere Deutschlanddue in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation. Retrieved 28 April Its large geography generates different musical styles in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island and Mapuche music. All other legislation and Dänemark Internet decisions must conform to its rules. Australia Canada New Zealand Singapore. Patagonien, Iguassu, Torres del Paine ─ klangvolle Namen von einzigartigen Naturschätzen Südamerikas. Dazu Rio und Buenos Aires ─ Städte, in denen das. Bis auf die Länder Chile und Ecuador hat Brasilien mit jedem anderen südamerikanischen Staat eine gemeinsame Grenze. Der Name Brasilien geht auf den. Erlebe die Highlights aus Argentinien, Brasilien und Chile auf dieser tägigen Rundreise "Südamerika ABC: Argentinien, Brasilien & Chile". Jetzt einfach. 13 Tage Südamerika-Rundreise Chile - Argentinien - Brasilien ab € Südamerikareise von Santiago de Chile nach Rio de Janeiro; Deutschsprechende. Brasilien Chile live resultater (og gratis video streaming på nettet) starter den kl. UTC tid i FIBA World Cup, Americas Qualifiers, Group B, International. Chile is an attractive market for Swiss SMEs and an ideal pilot country and hub in Latin America. Compared to other Latin countries, it offers political and economic stability, legal certainty and a business friendly environment. Chile (/ ˈ tʃ ɪ l i / (), / ˈ tʃ ɪ l eɪ /; Spanish:), officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: República de Chile (help · info)), is a country in western South fatmanseoul.com occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of , square kilometres (, sq mi) and has a population of million as of
Slot machine gratis online Chile Brasilien aber Chile Brasilien werde das? - REISEBEWERTUNGENEs gibt verschiedene Preisklassen vom einfachen Reisebus bis hin zum vollklimatisierten Bus mit Fernsehern und Reisebegleitern. What companies run services between Brazil and Chile? LATAM Chile, Gol Transportes Aéreos and Aerolíneas Argentinas fly from Brasília to Maipú 5 times a day. Alternatively, you can take a bus from São Paulo to Santiago via Portuguesa-tietê, São Paulo – Tietê, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, and Estación Central in around 2 days 0h. hot dogs, cumin, chili powder, shredded cheddar cheese, tomato paste and 13 more. Brazil and Chile living comparison. Explore similarities and differences. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in , decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until Search the InterNations Places database for Chile to get information on institutions from your home country, including the Brazilian embassy. From the world-famous Pan-American Highway to the rich and verdant districts of Central Valley, we’ll help you connect with supportive and friendly Brazilian expats in Chile. This highlights trip features three dynamic cities: Santiago in Chile, Buenos Aires in Argentina and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It takes you across the continent from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, visiting some of the most impressive sights along the way. Brazil has a total of 7, km of coastline. This article related to an ethnic group in Brazil is a stub. Rome2rio's Travel Guide series Italien Gegen Irland Tipp vital information for the global traveller.
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Call me back. Your name. The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion , and other laws and policies contribute to generally free religious practice.
The law at all levels fully protects this right against abuse by either governmental or private actors. Church and state are officially separate in Chile.
A law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment.
The Spanish spoken in Chile is distinctively accented and quite unlike that of neighboring South American countries because final syllables are often dropped, and some consonants have a soft pronunciation.
That the Chilean population was largely formed in a small section at the center of the country and then migrated in modest numbers to the north and south helps explain this relative lack of differentiation, which was maintained by the national reach of radio, and now television, which also helps to diffuse and homogenize colloquial expressions.
After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction.
German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile,  either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities.
Through initiatives such as the English Opens Doors Program , the government made English mandatory for students in fifth-grade and above in public schools.
Most private schools in Chile start teaching English from kindergarten. In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5. Primary school is provided for children between ages 6 and Students then attend secondary school until graduation at age Secondary education is divided into two parts: During the first two years, students receive a general education.
Then, they choose a branch: scientific humanistic education, artistic education, or technical and professional education. Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system — the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds:.
Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education. The higher education schools in Chile consist of Chilean Traditional Universities and are divided into public universities or private universities.
There are medical schools and both the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Diego Portales offer law schools in a partnership with Yale University.
The Ministry of Health Minsal is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile.
The National Health Fund Fonasa , created in , is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile.
It is funded by the public. All employees pay 7 percent of their monthly income to the fund. Its headquarters are in Santiago and decentralized public service is conducted by various Regional Offices.
More than 12 million beneficiaries benefit from Fonasa. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre. Hospitals in Chile are mainly located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region.
The Central Bank of Chile in Santiago serves as the central bank for the country. Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations,  leading Latin American nations in human development , competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.
Chile has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America ranking 7th worldwide , owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management.
Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile and have more than halved poverty rates.
The economy remained sluggish until , when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4. Real GDP growth reached 5. GDP expanded by 5 percent in Nonetheless, economic analysts disagreed with government estimates and predicted economic growth at a median of 1.
Growth slowed to 4. The unemployment rate was 6. The privatized national pension system AFP has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21 percent of GDP.
Chile has signed free trade agreements FTAs with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States that was signed in and implemented in January Chile's approach to foreign direct investment is codified in the country's Foreign Investment Law.
Registration is reported to be simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.
Chile is rich in mineral resources, especially copper and lithium. It is thought that due to the importance of lithium for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, Chile could be strengthened geopolitically.
However, this perspective has also been criticised for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production in other parts of the world.
Agriculture in Chile encompasses a wide range of different activities due to its particular geography , climate and geology and human factors.
Historically agriculture is one of the bases of Chile's economy. Now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry , logging and fishing account for only 4.
Some major agriculture products of Chile include grapes , apples , pears , onions , wheat , maize , oats , peaches , garlic , asparagus , beans , beef , poultry , wool , fish , timber and hemp.
Due to its geographical isolation and strict customs policies Chile is free from diseases such as mad cow disease , fruit fly and Phylloxera. This, its location in the Southern Hemisphere , which has quite different harvesting times from the Northern Hemisphere , and its wide range of agriculture conditions are considered Chile's main comparative advantages.
However, Chile's mountainous landscape limits the extent and intensity of agriculture so that arable land corresponds only to 2. Chile currently utilizes 14, Hectares of agricultural land.
Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades. In , tourism grew by According to the National Service of Tourism Sernatur , 2 million people a year visit the country.
Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina ; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and China.
The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama , in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture, the altiplano lakes, and the Valley of the Moon.
For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer December to March , and mainly in the coastal beach towns. In November the government launched a campaign under the brand "Chile: All Ways Surprising" intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.
Chile is home to the world renowned Patagonian Trail that resides on the border between Argentina and Chile. Chile recently launched a massive scenic route for tourism in hopes of encouraging development based on conservation.
Due to Chile's topography a functioning transport network is vital to its economy. Buses are now the main means of long-distance transportation in Chile, following the decline of its railway network.
Chile has a total of runways 62 paved and unpaved. Chile has a telecommunication system which covers much of the country, including Chilean insular and Antarctic bases.
Privatization of the telephone system began in ; Chile has one of the most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America with a modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities and domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations.
From the period between early agricultural settlements and up to the late pre-Hispanic period, northern Chile was a region of Andean culture that was influenced by altiplano traditions spreading to the coastal valleys of the north, while southern regions were areas of Mapuche cultural activities.
Throughout the colonial period following the conquest, and during the early Republican period, the country's culture was dominated by the Spanish.
Other European influences, primarily English, French, and German began in the 19th century and have continued to this day. Music in Chile ranges from folkloric, popular and classical music.
Its large geography generates different musical styles in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island and Mapuche music.
Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody.
Other important folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography , is Margot Loyola. Chile is a country of poets.
Chile's most famous poet is Pablo Neruda , who received the Nobel Prize for Literature and is world-renowned for his extensive library of works on romance, nature, and politics.
Isabel Allende is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide. Chilean cuisine is a reflection of the country's topographical variety, featuring an assortment of seafood, beef, fruits, and vegetables.
Traditional recipes include asado , cazuela , empanadas , humitas , pastel de choclo , pastel de papas, curanto and sopaipillas.
The raw minced llama , heavy use of shellfish and rice bread were taken from native Quechua Andean cuisine, although now beef brought to Chile by Europeans is also used in place of the llama meat , lemon and onions were brought by the Spanish colonists, and the use of mayonnaise and yogurt was introduced by German immigrants, as was beer.
The folklore of Chile, cultural and demographic characteristics of the country, is the result of mixture of Spanish and Amerindian elements that occurred during the colonial period.
Due to cultural and historical reasons, they are classified and distinguished four major areas in the country: northern areas, central, southern and south.
Most of the traditions of the culture of Chile have a festive purpose, but some, such as dances and ceremonies, have religious components. This includes Chilote mythology , Rapa Nui mythology and Mapuche mythology.
In the following decades, marked milestones The deck of Death or The Enigma of Lord Street , considered the first film of a Chilean story, The transmission of presidential , the first animated film in the country, and North and South , the first sound film of Chile.
Chile's most popular sport is association football. Colo-Colo is the country's most successful football club, having both the most national and international championships, including the coveted Copa Libertadores South American club tournament.
Universidad de Chile was the last international champion Copa Sudamericana Tennis is Chile's most successful sport. At the Summer Olympics the country captured gold and bronze in men's singles and gold in men's doubles.
At the Summer Olympic Games Chile boasts a total of two gold medals tennis , seven silver medals athletics, equestrian , boxing , shooting and tennis and four bronze medals tennis, boxing and football.
In , Chile won its first Paralympic Games medal gold in Athletics. Rodeo is the country's national sport and is practiced in the more rural areas of the nation.
A sport similar to hockey called chueca was played by the Mapuche people during the Spanish conquest. Skiing and snowboarding are practiced at ski centers located in the Central Andes, and in southern ski centers near to cities as Osorno, Puerto Varas, Temuco and Punta Arenas.
Surfing is popular at some coastal towns. Polo is professionally practiced within Chile, with the country achieving top prize in the and World Polo Championship.
The Dakar Rally off-road automobile race has been held in both Chile and Argentina since The cultural heritage of Chile consists, first, of their intangible heritage, composed of various cultural events, such as visual arts, crafts, dances, holidays, cuisine, games, music and traditions, and, secondly, by its tangible, consists of those buildings, objects and sites of archaeological, architectural, traditional, artistic, ethnographic, folkloric, historical, religious or technological scattered through Chilean territory, among them, those goods are declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO , in accordance with the provisions of the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of , ratified by Chile in In the Cultural Heritage Day was established as a way to honour and commemorate Chiles cultural heritage.
It is an official national event celebrated in May every year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in South America.
This article is about the country in South America. For other uses, see Chile disambiguation. Chilean territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green.
Main article: History of Chile. See also: Prehispanic history of Chile and Origin of the Mapuche. Main articles: Conquest of Chile and Colonial Chile.
See also: Chile earthquake. Main articles: Politics of Chile and Law of Chile. Main article: Foreign relations of Chile. Country with diplomatic relations and Chilean embassy in the country.
Country with diplomatic relations and an embassy in Chile, but no Chilean embassy. Country with diplomatic relations but without ambassadors.
Country with no diplomatic relations currently. Main article: Administrative divisions of Chile. Arica and Parinacota Region. Antofagasta Region.
Atacama Region. Coquimbo Region. Santiago Metropolitan Region. O'Higgins Region. Maule Region. Los Lagos Region. Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region.
Antarctic Territory Claimed. Largest cities or towns in Chile Census . Main article: Military of Chile. Main article: Geography of Chile.
See also: Natural regions of Chile and Environmental issues in Chile. Great-Far North. Northern Zone. Central Zone. Southern Zone. Austral Zone.
Main article: Climate of Chile. Main article: Wildlife of Chile. Main article: Demographics of Chile.
Main articles: Indigenous peoples in Chile and Immigration to Chile. Main article: Religion in Chile.
Main articles: Education in Chile and List of universities in Chile. Main article: Healthcare in Chile. Main article: Economy of Chile. Main article: Agriculture in Chile.
Main article: Tourism in Chile. Main article: Transport in Chile. Main article: Chilean mythology. Main article: Cinema of Chile.
Main article: Sport in Chile. Chile portal Latin America portal. See the Sample section for an IPA transcribed text in a lower-class form of the dialect.
Central Bank of Chile. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 16 September The World Factbook. In , acceding to the demands of revolutionaries who had taken the city of Porto ,  D.
Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased, and the Portuguese Cortes , guided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony.
The Brazilian War of Independence , which had already begun along this process, spread through the northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.
As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he came of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly. These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state.
During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in ,  as a result of the British Aberdeen Act , but only in May after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country , was the institution formally abolished.
The foreign-affairs policies of the monarchy dealt with issues with the countries of the Southern Cone with whom Brazil had borders.
Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government ,  on 15 November , in disagreement with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites for different reasons , the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.
The early republican government was nothing more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both in Rio de Janeiro and in the states.
Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power. If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries,  only broken by the Acre War — and its involvement in World War I — ,    followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations ;  Internally, from the crisis of Encilhamento    and the Armada Revolts ,  a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability began until the s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian    and military.
In the s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution in , led by the Paulista oligarchy.
The second was a Communist uprising in November , and the last one a putsch attempt by local fascists in May Foreign policy during the Vargas years was marked by the antecedents [ clarification needed ] and World War II.
Brazil remained neutral until August , when the country entered on the allied side ,   after suffering retaliation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy , in a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic.
With the Allied victory in and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier.
Several brief interim governments followed Vargas's suicide. The new regime was intended to be transitory  but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in Slowly, however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that had not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas,  plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva.
He became unpopular during his tenure through failure to control the economic crisis and hyperinflation he inherited from the military regime.
In , Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real ,  that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy.
Enhanced by political and economic crises with evidence of involvement by politicians from all the primary political parties in several bribery and tax evasion schemes,   with large street protests for and against her ,  Rousseff was impeached by the Brazilian Congress in Starting in , there is a total change in Brazilian politics, with the overthrow of the left and the rise of conservatism in right.
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,  sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela , Guyana , Suriname and France French overseas region of French Guiana to the north.
It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,, Brazil is the longest country in the world, spanning 4, km 2, mi from north to south.
Brazil is also the only country in the world that has the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn running through it. Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands.
In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north.
Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.
The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.
The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season , but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than millimetres Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest , recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,  with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado , sustaining the greatest biodiversity.
Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates.
Larger mammals include carnivores pumas , jaguars , ocelots , rare bush dogs , and foxes , and herbivores peccaries , tapirs , anteaters , sloths , opossums , and armadillos.
Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests. By , Brazil's "dramatic policy-driven reduction in Amazon Basin deforestation" was a "global exception in terms of forest change", according to scientific journal Science.
However, in , when the Bolsonaro government came to power, the rate of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest increased sharply threatening to reach a tipping point after it the forest will collapse, having severe consequences for the world.
Using these fallacies, certain countries instead of helping, embarked on the media lies and behaved in a disrespectful manner and with a colonialist spirit.
President Jair Bolsonaro asserted Brazil's sovereignty over the Amazon. According to a GreenPeace article, the natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire, and invasive species.
The form of government is a democratic federative republic , with a presidential system. The current president is Jair Bolsonaro.
The previous president, Michel Temer , replaced Dilma Rousseff after her impeachment. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.
Brazil is a democracy , according to the Democracy Index The political-administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities.
The federation is set on five fundamental principles:  sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism.
The classic tripartite branches of government executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system are formally established by the Constitution.
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress.
It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly.
The country has more than 40 active political parties, and only one of them defines itself as a right-wing party PSL , with a clear political imbalance.
The only party that claims to be purely liberal, without further consideration, is Novo. When asked about their ideological spectrum, Brazilian parties tend to give obtuse and non-conclusive answers on the subject.
Brazilian law is based on the civil law legal system  and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role.
Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases.
Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases. The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution , promulgated on 5 October , and the fundamental law of Brazil.
All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.
This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision-making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings.
The armed forces of Brazil are the largest in Latin America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment. Brazil's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.
Numbering close to , active personnel,  the Brazilian Army has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America , including armored transports and tanks.
Brazil's navy, the second-largest in the Americas, once operated some of the most powerful warships in the world with the two Minas Geraes -class dreadnoughts , which sparked a South American dreadnought race between Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
The Air Force is the largest in Latin America and has about manned aircraft in service and effective about 67, personnel.
Brazil has not been invaded since during the Paraguayan War. Brazil's international relations are based on Article 4 of the Federal Constitution , which establishes non-intervention , self-determination , international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations.
According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while the Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties , as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.
Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's position as a regional power in Latin America , a leader among developing countries , and an emerging world power.
Brazil is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.
An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India.
Of these, the first three are affiliated with federal authorities and the last two are subordinate to state governments. All police forces are the responsibility of the executive branch of any of the federal or state powers.
The country still has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide. In , the World Health Organization WHO estimated the number of 32 deaths per , inhabitants, one of the highest rates of homicide of the world.
Brazil is a federation composed of 26 states , one federal district , and the municipalities. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters.
They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States.
For example, criminal and civil laws can be voted by only the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country. The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern , Northeast , Central-West , Southeast and Southern.
The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government.
Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects.
Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.
Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca county.
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America , the world's ninth largest economy and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity PPP according to estimates.
Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. After rapid growth in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests.
Active in agricultural , mining , manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has a labor force of over million ranking 6th worldwide and unemployment of 6.
The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets , and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.
Brazil's diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services. Part of the production is exported, and another part goes to the domestic market.
In the production of animal proteins, Brazil is today one of the largest countries in the world. In , the country was the world's largest exporter of chicken meat.
In terms of precious stones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst , topaz , agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline , emerald , aquamarine and garnet.
Industry in Brazil — from automobiles , steel and petrochemicals to computers , aircraft and consumer durables — accounted for In the food industry , in , Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world.
Brazil pegged its currency, the real , to the U. However, after the East Asian financial crisis , the Russian default in  and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed float regime  scheme while undergoing a currency crisis , until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January Brazil's central bank repaid the IMF loan in , although it was not due to be repaid until The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies was the Cia.
The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in and the first airplane engine running on ethanol in Recent oil discoveries in the Pre-salt layer have opened the door for a large increase in oil production.
In January this year, 3. Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. The country had 6. Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and recreation , mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel , as well as cultural tourism.
In terms of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index TTCI , which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil ranked in the 28st place at the world's level, third in the Americas , after Canada and United States.
Brazil's main competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of all countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage sites.
The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped ranked th , with the quality of roads ranking in th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness ranked th , due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation.
Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in , up from th in According to the World Tourism Organization WTO , international travel to Brazil accelerated in , particularly during and However, in a slow-down took place, and international arrivals had almost no growth in — This favorable trend is the result of the strong devaluation of the US dollar against the Brazilian Real , which began in , but which makes Brazil a more expensive international destination.
This trend changed in , when both visitors and revenues fell as a result of the Great Recession of — Despite continuing record-breaking international tourism revenues, the number of Brazilian tourists travelling overseas has been growing steadily since , resulting in a net negative foreign exchange balance, as more money is spent abroad by Brazilians than comes in as receipts from international tourists visiting Brazil.
In , tourism contributed with 3. Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies.
The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources to launch vehicles, and manufacture of satellites.
Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America  with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences, and Brazil is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fabrication plant , the CEITEC.
Brazil also has a large number of outstanding scientific personalities. Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic.
The road system totaled 1. Kubitschek was responsible for the installation of major car manufacturers in the country Volkswagen , Ford and General Motors arrived in Brazil during his rule and one of the points used to attract them was support for the construction of highways.
With the implementation of Fiat in ending an automobile market closed loop, from the end of the s the country has received large foreign direct investments installing in its territory other major car manufacturers and utilities, such as Iveco , Renault , Peugeot , Citroen , Honda , Mitsubishi , Mercedes-Benz , BMW , Hyundai , Toyota among others.
Brazil's railway system has been declining since , when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The country has an extensive rail network of 28, kilometres 17, miles in length, the tenth largest network in the world.
There are about 2, airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.
For freight transport waterways are of importance, e. The country also has 50, kilometres 31, miles of waterways.
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos.
The Brazilian public health system, the Unified Health System SUS , is managed and provided by all levels of government,  being the largest system of this type in the world.
Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. In , Brazil had 1. Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care system in , there are still several public health problems in Brazil.
In , the main points to be solved were the high infant 2. The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases Finally, external but preventable factors such as car accidents, violence and suicide caused The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Union , the states , the Federal District , and the municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems.
Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources.
According to the IBGE , in , the literacy rate of the population was Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses , which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers.
Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense. Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education.
Kindergarten , elementary and medium education are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental , visual or hearing.
Of the top 20 Latin American universities, eight are Brazilian. Most of them are public. Brazil's private institutions tend to be more exclusive and offer better quality education, so many high-income families send their children there.
The result is a segregated educational system that reflects extreme income disparities and reinforces social inequality.
However, efforts to change this are making impacts. The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro , the first newspaper published in the country, began to circulate on 10 September Radio broadcasting began on 7 September , with a speech by then President Pessoa, and was formalized on 20 April with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro.
The first census in Brazil was carried out in and recorded a population of 9,, In the s the annual population growth rate was 2.
In , the illiteracy rate was It was highest In , the National Indian Foundation estimated that Brazil has 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from their estimate of 40 in Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.
Race and ethnicity in Brazil   . Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines , although a high income disparity is found between race groups , so racism and classism can be conflated.
Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance phenotypes rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups.
The brown population officially called pardo in Portuguese, also colloquially moreno   is a broad category that includes caboclos assimilated Amerindians in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives , mulatos descendants of primarily Whites and Afro-Brazilians and cafuzos descendants of Afro-Brazilians and Natives.
About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between and , most of them of Portuguese , Italian , Spanish , German , Ukrainian , Polish , Jewish , Russian , Chinese , Japanese , and Arab origin.
Religion in Brazil Census. Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant faith. Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population. Religion in Brazil was formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of enslaved African peoples and indigenous peoples.
Other Protestant branches with a notable presence in the country include the Baptists , Seventh-day Adventists , Lutherans and the Reformed tradition.
However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly in forms of Pentecostalism and Evangelicalism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly.
The agreement confirmed norms that were normally complied with regarding religious education in public elementary schools which also ensures the teaching of other beliefs , marriage and spiritual assistance in prisons and hospitals.
The project was criticized by parliamentarians who understood the end of the secular state with the approval of the agreement.
The official language of Brazil is Portuguese  Article 13 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil , which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes.
Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.
Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese  despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants , coming from Northern regions , and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia , with a few influences from the Amerindian and African languages , especially West African and Bantu restricted to the vocabulary only.
These differences are comparable to those between American and British English. In , the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other.
This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July allowing for a six-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist.
The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables. The sign language law legally recognized in ,  the law was regulated in  the use of the Brazilian Sign Language , more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services.
The language must be taught as a part of the education and speech and language pathology curricula. Opret dig som ny bruger hos sport via BetXperts link herunder.
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